- -based on few prototypes with slight variations
- -the slightly differing front facade
- -extensive use of brick
- -the sloping roof
years following the 1974 uprising is marked by the slowdown of in the construction industry.
-urban land and extra houses were nationalized.
-the private sectors role in building construction was limited to constructing small .
-buildings for offices and apartments were mainly built by the government.
-the Ministry of Urban Development and housing (MUDH) was for planning the urban areas.
buildings of this time are characterized by:
- -mass production
- -standardized product
- -prefabricated building materials
- -low cost
- -functional requirements are given priority
urban development policy until March 2005. Therefore,what can be referred to as ‘urban policy’ is, for the most part, restricted to the statements of intent featuring in various national economic development policy documents, including some landmark proclamations and regulations regarding urban areas. the landmark in Dreg urban development policies was Proclamation No. 47, which in 1975 nationalized
urban land and rental housing. The damage thus inflicted on the urban economy in general, and the urban housing sector in particular, was so enormousthat the Dreg itself started to introduce some remedial measures prior to its downfall. Some of these included
a rather new bias in favor of a “Mixed Economy”. With this policy shift, the government began to open windows of opportunity for private sector investment, even in the area of housing provision. Upon coming to power, the EPRDF took the notion of a mixed economy
one or more steps further through open pursuit of market- oriented reforms. Nonetheless, with regard to land and housing, the new government’s policy was very similar to that of the junta during its final days. There may be no better evidence than the EPRDF’s decision
to keep urban land as public property, together with persistent ambivalence or indecision over privatization of public housing.
Perhaps the second most important policy decision made by the EPRDF with regard to urban development
was the urban land lease legislation embodied in Proclamation No.3. in 1994. The main objective was not only to adopt a market-oriented land and housing development system although land remained government property. The government’s declared intention was also to create a steady source of revenue for city authorities, so that they could use leasehold-generated revenue to improve municipal services.
However, it appears that even the Addis Ababa City Administration has not managed to generate much revenue along these lines, partly due to inadequate implementation of the policy.
- Opportunity – Call for paper on alternative urban development (Métropoles) (utsurbanforum.wordpress.com)
- President Mahama launches National Urban Policy (modernghana.com)
- Ghana launches urban policy framework (ghanabusinessnews.com)
- Five Principles of Urban Economics (city-journal.org)
- Quality of Life in Urban Mobility- Policy Neglect of the Needs for Pedestrians (indiastreets.wordpress.com)
- Housing starts rise 7.2 percent last month, still down from March 2010 (lexingtonlaw.com)